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Table 1 Putative functions for the detoxification genes expressed in different life stages of Bombus huntii , based on the function assigned when the gene was first isolated

From: Detoxification and stress response genes expressed in a western North American bumble bee, Bombus huntii(Hymenoptera: Apidae)

Enzymes Putative functions Taxon of identified gene Reference Bombus huntiilife stage/caste1
Oxidation and reduction enzymes
Aldehyde dehydrogenases Acetaldehyde detoxification Drosophila melanogaster [25] ii, iii, v, vi, vii
Alcohol dehydrogenases Interconversion of alcohols and aldehydes or ketones with the reduction of NADH D. melanogaster [25] all
Catalases Catalyze H2O2 to H2O and O2 Anopheles gambiae [26] i, ii, iii, vi, vii, viii
Cytochrome P450s Detoxify xenobiotics by transferring O2 to a substrate and producing H2O2, OH, O2- D. melanogaster, A. gambiae, Tyria jacobaeae, Culex quinquefasciatus [1, 16, 27, 28] all
Dehalogenases Remove halogen from haloacid compounds Sinorhizobium meliloti [29] iii, iv, vi, vii
Hydroxylases Degrades toxic organic compounds and pesticides by introducing –OH Chrysopogon zizanioides [30] ii-vii
Oxidoreductases Detoxify gramine Sitobion avenae [31] all
Peroxidases Catalyze H2O2 and organic hydroperoxides (OHPs) A. gambiae [32] all
Superoxide dismutases (SOD) Catalyze the dismutation of O2 into O2 and H2O2 A. mellifera [33, 34] all
Thioredoxins/glutaredoxins Detoxification of ROS Saccharomyces cerevisiae [35] i, ii, vi, vii, viii
Conjugation enzymes
Acetyltransferases Detoxify sulfadiazine and aromatic chemicals by transferring acetyl groups from acetyl-CoA to arylamines Legionella pneumophila, Homo sapiens [36, 37] i, ii, iii, v, vi, vii, viii
Acyltransferase Catalyze carboxylic acid group, such as benzoic, isovaleric, or acetylsalicylic acids H. sapiens [38] i, ii, iv, vi, vii, viii
CoA transferases Acetate detoxification Aspergillus nidulans [39] viii
Formyltransferases Formaldehyde detoxification Burkholderia fungorum [40] i, ii, iii, vi, vii, viii
Glutathione S-transferases (GST) Detoxify endogenous compounds (peroxidised lipids) and exogenous toxins (pyrethroid and organophosphate) by catalyzing reduced glutathione Tenebrio molitor, Bombus ignites, Locusta migratoria manilensis [18, 41] all
Glycosyltransferases Glycosyltransfer to OH–, NH2-, SH-, or COOH for detoxifying insecticides Bombyx mori [17, 42] all
Methyltransferases Catalyze methylation reactions using S-adenosyl-L-methionine as a substrate for detoxification H. sapiens [43] all
Phosphotransferases Detoxify insecticides such as DDT Triatoma infestans [44] i, ii, vi, vii, viii
Sulfotransferases Detoxify insecticides such as DDT T. infestans [44] iii, vii
Transaminases or aminotransferases Detoxify 3-hydroxykynurenine and glyoxylate by catalyzing amino acid and α-keto acid Aedes aegypti, D. melanogaster [45] ii-viii
Hydrolytic enzymes
Acetylcholine and carboxyl esterases Detoxify pyrethroids and organophosphates by hydrolysis of acyl group or ester bonds Lucilia cuprina, D. melanogaster [22] all
Acid/Alkaline phosphatases Detoxify endotoxin and plant toxin Danio rerio, Agriolimax agrestis [46, 47] ii, iii, vi, vii
Amidases Detoxify toxic amides or esters, or organophosphorus or carbamate pesticides Acromyrmex octospinosus [48] ii, iii, iv, vi, vii, viii
Aminopeptidases Detoxify Bt Cry toxin, mycotoxin, organophosphonates, pyrethroid esters, microbial or botanical pesticides B. mori, Pseudoplusia includens, E. coli [42, 48, 49] all
Cyclohydrolase Hydrolysis of L-phenylalanine Drosophila spp. [50] vi
Glycosidases Hydrolyze sugar-containing compounds such as tannic acid and gallic acid Manduca sexta [48] i, ii, iii, v, vi, vii, viii
Glycosylases Detoxify cytotoxic and cytostatic substances such as 5-methyl group of a thymine residue, biodegrade saponins Phaeosphaeria nodorum, P. avenaria f. sp. triticea [51] i, ii, vi, vii, viii
Nitrilases Detoxify HCN Caenorhabditis elegans [52] i-vii
Phosphodiesterase Break phosphodiester bond for hydrolysis of organophosphate insecticides E. coli [53] ii, iii, iv, vi, vii
Phosphohydrolases Detoxify cypermethrin and bifenthrin Tribolium castaneum [54] ii, iii-viii
Others with possible stress related functions
ABC transporters Export conjugated toxins out of the cell Drosophila spp. [11] vii, viii
Cadherins Resistance to Bt toxin (Cry1Ac) Helicoverpa armigera [55] i, ii, vi, vii, viii
Heat shock proteins Involved in folding and unfolding of proteins, detoxification of pesticides and heavy metals Chironomus tentans [56] all
Isomerases Detoxify organophosphates by structural rearrangement of isomers E. coli [16] all
Lyases Break various chemical bonds other than hydrolysis and oxidation for detoxification Zygaena transalpina [57] all
  1. i-egg, ii-early instar larvae, iii-late instar larvae, iv-pupae, v-adult male, vi-adult worker, vii-diapausing queen, viii-egglaying queen, all-all stages.