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Table 1 The neonicotinoid response of the susceptible S-GR6 and the resistant B. tabaci laboratory strains. Toxicological data to the neonicotinoids imidacloprid, acetamiprid and thiacloprid and toxicity of imidacloprid after pre-exposure to synergist piperonyl butoxide (PBO)

From: Transcription analysis of neonicotinoid resistance in Mediterranean (MED) populations of B. tabaci reveal novel cytochrome P450s, but no nAChR mutations associated with the phenotype

Strain n LC50 (95 % CI) RR (95 % CI) SR (95 % CI)
IMIDACLOPRID
 S-GR6 580 7.5 (5.4–10) -  
 S-GR6 + PBO 543 6.0 (4.3–7.1) - -
 GR4_AP 586 69 (46–98) 9 (6–13)  
 GR4_AS 479 423 (258–657) 56 (36–87)  
 GR4_AS + PBO 433 185 (67–302) 30 (17–38) 1.9 (1.7–2.3)
 GR9_IP 547 176 (82–268) 23 (15–35)  
 GR9_IS 479 301 (186–443) 40 (28–58)  
 GR9_IS + PBO 435 207 (164–332) 34 (25–50) 1.2 (1.1–1.4)
 GR0_IP 699 82 (60–106) 11 (7–16)  
 GR0_IS 451 177 (55–336) 24 (14–39)  
 GR0_IS + PBO 425 52 (10–148) 9 (3–16) 2.7 (2.3–3.1
ACETAMIPRID
 S-GR6 503 7.9 (5.1–11) -  
 GR4_AP 442 44 (20–80) 5 (3–9)  
 GR4_AS 539 157 (99–242) 20 (15–33)  
 GR9_IP 391 56 (28–89) 7 (4.1–11)  
 GR9_IS 535 137 (110–163) 17 (11–26)  
 GR0_IP 402 33 (25–59) 4 (2.8–6.3)  
 GR0_IS 460 71 (42–105) 9 (5.3–15)  
THIACLOPRID
 S-GR6 517 11 (4.2–22) -  
 GR4_AP 422 >30,000 >3,000  
 GR4_AS 300 9,740 (835–27,145) 924 (378–2,259)  
 GR9_IP 449 >30,000 >3,000  
 GR9_IS 320 13,061 (5,253–25,522) 1,239 (720–2,134)  
 GR0_IP 422 >30,000 >3,000  
 GR0_IS 281 10,477 (3,373–21,100) 994 (457–2,161)  
  1. RR resistance ratio at LC50, the Lethal Concentration of 50 %, CI confidence intervals resistance characteristics, SR synergist ratio: RR/RR after pretreatment with PBO